The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030

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Conductive ink, Medical & healthcare, electronic textiles & apparel, batteries, energy harvesting devices, photovoltaics, lighting, sensors, displays, memory, logic and components

Potential applications for the printed, flexible and stretchable and organic electronics industry appear endless. The rapid boom in smart wearable and integrated electronic devices has stimulated demand for advanced intelligent systems with high performance, micro size, mechanical flexibility, and high-temperature stability. These systems must also be able to conform to the shape of and survive the environment in which they must operate. They are typically fabricated on flexible plastic substrates or are printed/woven into fabrics.

Based on a new generation of advanced materials, printed, flexible & stretchable and organic sensors and electronics enable new possibilities in a diverse range of industries from healthcare to automotive to buildings. These technologies will drive innovation in smart medical technology, automotive, smart manufacturing, Internet of Things (IoT) and consumer electronics.

The development of printed, flexible & stretchable wearable electronic devices that maintain a high level of performance is a major electronics industry and research driver. Recent advances in stimuli-responsive surfaces and interfaces, sensors and actuators, flexible electronics, nanocoatings and conductive nanomaterials has led to the development of a new generation of smart and adaptive electronic fibers, yarns and fabrics for application in E-textiles. Wearable low-power silicon electronics, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) fabricated on fabrics, textiles with integrated Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and electronic devices such as smart glasses, watches and lenses have been widely investigated and commercialized. This year we have also seen the commercial launch of foldable OLED smartphones from Samsung and Huawei.

In the flexible displays market, numerous consumer electronics are bringing flexible display products to the market in 2019 in smartphones, advertising and other wearables . The automotive industry is also heavily involved in product development for flexible displays.

Wearable and mobile health monitoring technologies have recently received enormous interest worldwide due to the rapidly aging global populations and the drastically increasing demand for in-home healthcare. Commercially available and near commercial wearable devices facilitate the transmission of biomedical informatics and personal health recording. Body worn sensors, which can provide real-time continuous measurement of pertinent physiological parameters noninvasively and comfortably for extended periods of time, are of crucial importance for emerging applications of mobile medicine. Wearable sensors that can wirelessly provide pertinent health information while remaining unobtrusive, comfortable, low cost, and easy to operate and interpret, play an essential role.

Advancements over the last few years in electronics have led to the development of electronic (E-textiles) or smart textiles. Smart textiles and garments can sense environmental stimuli and react or adapt in a predetermined way. This involves either embedding or integrating sensors/actuators ad electronic components into textiles for use in applications such as medical diagnostics and health monitoring, consumer electronics, safety instruments and automotive textiles.

There is huge global interest in incorporating electronic functions into clothing and wearable devices for applications such as wearable sensing, healthcare, soft robotics and human computer interfaces. These areas will greatly benefit from developing electrical interconnects, sensors, transistors and circuits, lighting elements and power sources that are fully stretchable and conformable.

Electronics and power sources electronics which are not only flexible but also conformable and deformable offer the advantages of conventional devices while ideally maintaining excellent electrical properties under strain. They can stretched like a rubber band and twisted like a rope without any significant reduction in performance. Their development is key to the realization of wearables as they can deform along with soft interfaces such as:

  • textiles.
  • skin.
  • tissue.
  • moving components in devices and robots.

Battery and electronics producers require thin, flexible energy storage and conversion devices to power their wearable technology. The growth in flexible electronics has resulted in increased demand for flexible, stretchable, bendable, rollable and foldable batteries and supercapacitors as power sources for application in flexible and wearable devices.

Many major companies have integrated conductive and electronic ink and materials in applications ranging from photovoltaics to smart packaging. There are over 100 companies with products in this space for RFID, smart clothing, sensors, antennas and transistors.

Report contents include:

  • Current and developmental printed, flexible & stretchable and organic electronics products.
  • Advanced materials used in printable, flexible & stretchable and organic electronics and sensors.
  • Stage of commercialization for applications, from basic research to market entry. Markets covered include conductive inks, wearables and IoT, medical & healthcare sensors, electronic clothing & smart apparel, energy harvesting & storage, electronics components and flexible displays.
  • Market drivers and trends.
  • Profiles of over 350 producers and product developers.
  • Global market revenues and forecasts 2015-2030.
  • Market analysis:
    • conductive inks
    • wearables and IoT
    • medical & healthcare sensors
    • RFID and NFC Devices
    • flexible thin film transistors
    • Antennas and Microwave Devices
    • electronic clothing & smart apparel
    • energy harvesting & storage
    • electronics components and flexible displays
    • flexible photovoltaics
    • flexible sensors, actuators and transducers
    • OLED lighting.

 

Published April 2019 | 600 pages | 104 tables, 157 figures | Table of contents

The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030
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 The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030
Print edition (including tracked delivery).
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030
The Global Market for Printable, Flexible, Stretchable and Organic Electronics to 2030
PDF and print edition (including tracked delivery)

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY…………………………………………………………. 38

  • 1.1     The evolution of electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
    • 1.1.1       The wearables revolution………………………………………………………………………………………………. 40
    • 1.1.2       Flexible, thin, and large-area form factors………………………………………………………………………….. 41
    • 1.1.3       Internet of Things (IoT) needs…………………………………………………………………………………………. 42
  • 1.2     Printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics………………………………………………………………….. 43
    • 1.2.1       From rigid to flexible and stretchable………………………………………………………………………………… 43
    • 1.2.2       Organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………………………………….. 46
    • 1.2.3       State of the Art of the current printing technologies……………………………………………………………… 46
    • 1.2.4       New conductive materials………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • 1.3     Wearable electronics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 50
    • 1.3.1       Current state of the art………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 53
    • 1.3.2       Advanced materials solutions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 55
  • 1.4     Growth in flexible and stetchable electronics market…………………………………………………………………….. 58
    • 1.4.1       Recent growth in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic products……………………………………… 58
    • 1.4.2       Future growth……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 58
    • 1.4.3       Advanded materials as a market driver……………………………………………………………………………… 59
    • 1.4.4       Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics……………………………………………………………. 59
  • 1.5     Global market size to 2030…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
    • 1.5.1       Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 61
    • 1.5.2       Market revenues to 2030……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62

2    RESEARCH METHODOLOGY………………………………………………… 65

3    CONDUCTIVE INKS……………………………………………………………….. 66

  • 3.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • 3.2     Conductive ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 68
  • 3.3     Printing methods………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 69
    • 3.3.1       Nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72
  • 3.4     Sintering…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • 3.5     Conductive Filaments……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • 3.6     Conductive films, foils and grids………………………………………………………………………………………………. 73
  • 3.7     Inkjet printing In flexible electronics………………………………………………………………………………………….. 73
  • 3.8     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
    • 3.8.1       Current products………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 74
    • 3.8.2       Advanced materials solutions…………………………………………………………………………………………. 75
    • 3.8.3       RFID…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
    • 3.8.4       Smart labels……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
    • 3.8.5       Smart clothing…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 80
    • 3.8.6       Printable sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 81
    • 3.8.7       Printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 81
    • 3.8.8       Printable antennas……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
    • 3.8.9       In-mold electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
    • 3.8.10     Printed transistors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 85
  • 3.9     Global market size……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 86
    • 3.9.1       Current market status……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 86
    • 3.9.2       Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 87
    • 3.9.3       Market revenues, current and projected to 2030…………………………………………………………………. 87
  • 3.10        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 90-127 (110 company profiles)

4    MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE……………………………………………… 129

  • 4.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 129
  • 4.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 131
  • 4.3     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 132
  • 4.4     Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………………………… 138
    • 4.4.1       Nanomaterials-based devices……………………………………………………………………………………….. 138
  • 4.5     Printable, flexible, stretchable and organic health monitors…………………………………………………………… 140
  • 4.6     Point of care testing systems………………………………………………………………………………………………… 141
  • 4.7     Standalone IoT…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 142
  • 4.8     Smartphone integrated………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 144
  • 4.9     Implantable devices…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 146
  • 4.10        Patch-type skin sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 147
  • 4.11        Skin temperature monitoring……………………………………………………………………………………………… 150
  • 4.12        Hydration sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • 4.13        Wearable sweat sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 153
  • 4.14        UV patches…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 155
  • 4.15        Smart footwear………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • 4.16        Smart medical socks……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
  • 4.17        Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 157
    • 4.17.1     Current market status………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 158
    • 4.17.2     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 158
    • 4.17.3     Market revenues, current and projected to 2030………………………………………………………………… 159
  • 4.18        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 162-176 (50 company profiles)

5    ELECTRONIC TEXTILES AND APPAREL………………………………. 177

  • 5.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 177
  • 5.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 179
    • 5.2.1       Current state of the art………………………………………………………………………………………………… 180
    • 5.2.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………………… 181
  • 5.3     Conductive yarns……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 183
  • 5.4     Conductive nanofibers…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
  • 5.5     Conductive coatings……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 186
  • 5.6     Smart helmets……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 188
  • 5.7     Solar energy harvesting textiles……………………………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • 5.8     Smart socks………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 190
  • 5.9     Military……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 190
  • 5.10        Wearable heaters…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 191
  • 5.11        Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
    • 5.11.1     Current market status………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 192
    • 5.11.2     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 193
    • 5.11.3     Market revenues, current and projected to 2030………………………………………………………………… 193
  • 5.12        Recent research…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 196
  • 5.13        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 199-211 (45 company profiles)

6    BATTERIES………………………………………………………………………… 213

  • 6.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 213
  • 6.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 214
  • 6.3     Printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 215
  • 6.3.1       Types of printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 216
    • 6.3.1.1    Printed microbatteries……………………………………………………………………………………………… 218
    • 6.3.1.2    Printed primary batteries………………………………………………………………………………………….. 218
    • 6.3.1.3    Printed rechargeable batteries………………………………………………………………………………….. 219
    • 6.3.1.4    Flexible, stretchable and rechargeable printed batteries………………………………………………….. 219
    • 6.3.1.5    3-D printed batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
    • 6.3.1.6    Graphene batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • 6.4     Flexible and stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………… 221
    • 6.4.1       Flexible lithium-ion batteries (LIBs)…………………………………………………………………………………. 225
      • 6.4.1.1    Textile/fiber-based LIBs…………………………………………………………………………………………… 226
    • 6.4.2       Flexible lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries…………………………………………………………………………….. 227
    • 6.4.3       Flexible lithium–air (Li–air) batteries……………………………………………………………………………….. 228
    • 6.4.4       Flexible zinc–air batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 229
    • 6.4.5       Flexible sodium–ion batteries………………………………………………………………………………………… 229
    • 6.4.6       Carbon nanomaterial flexible batteries…………………………………………………………………………….. 230
    • 6.4.7       Fiber-shaped Lithium-Ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………. 232
    • 6.4.8       Cable-type batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 232
    • 6.4.9       Bendable microbatteries………………………………………………………………………………………………. 232
    • 6.4.10     Paper batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
    • 6.4.11     Stretchable batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 234
      • 6.4.11.1       Stretchable conductors and electrodes……………………………………………………………………. 234
    • 6.4.12     Stretchable LIBs………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 234
      • 6.4.12.1       Stretchable Zn-based batteries……………………………………………………………………………… 235
      • 6.4.12.2       Origami structures……………………………………………………………………………………………… 236
      • 6.4.12.3       Foldable kirigami lithium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………………….. 237
      • 6.4.12.4       Island-Bridge Structures………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
      • 6.4.12.5       Arched electrode architecture……………………………………………………………………………….. 238
      • 6.4.12.6       Stretchable nanogenerators…………………………………………………………………………………. 239
      • 6.4.12.7       Batteries in stretchable fabrics………………………………………………………………………………. 240
    • 6.4.13     Carbon nanomaterials for flexible and stretchable batteries………………………………………………….. 240
      • 6.4.13.1       Single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) flexible batteries…………………………………………….. 241
      • 6.4.13.2       Ultra-transparent and stretchable graphene electrodes………………………………………………. 242
  • 6.5     Flexible and stretchable supercapacitors………………………………………………………………………………….. 243
    • 6.5.1       Paper-based flexible micro-supercapacitors……………………………………………………………………… 245
  • 6.6     Company profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 246-315 (80 company profiles)

7    PHOTOVOLTAICS……………………………………………………………….. 320

  • 7.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 320
  • 7.2     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 321
  • 7.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 321
  • 7.4     Printed Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells……………………………………………………………………………………… 322
  • 7.5     Thin film photovoltaics…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 323
  • 7.6     Amorphous silicon solar cells………………………………………………………………………………………………… 323
  • 7.7     Cadmium telluride (CdTe)…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 323
  • 7.8     Copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS)…………………………………………………………………………………. 324
  • 7.9     Dye-sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC)…………………………………………………………………………………………. 325
  • 7.10        Organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells……………………………………………………………………………………….. 326
    • 7.10.1     Building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) market………………………………………………………………….. 327
    • 7.10.2     Current market developments……………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
    • 7.10.3     OPV Perovskite cells…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 328
  • 7.11        Energy harvesting…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 329
    • 7.11.1     Stretchable piezoelectric energy harvesting……………………………………………………………………… 331
    • 7.11.2     Stretchable triboelectric energy harvesting……………………………………………………………………….. 332
  • 7.12        Solar windows……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 333
  • 7.13        Market challenges for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic photovoltaics………………………………. 334
  • 7.14        Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 335
    • 7.14.1     Current market status………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 335
    • 7.14.2     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 336
    • 7.14.3     Market revenues, current and projected to 2030………………………………………………………………… 336
  • 7.15        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 337-340 (35 company profiles)

8    LIGHTING……………………………………………………………………………. 360

  • 8.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 360
  • 8.2     Current state of the art…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 360
  • 8.3     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 361
    • 8.3.1       LED Lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 361
    • 8.3.2       OLED lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 362
    • 8.3.3       Benefits of LED lighting……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 362
    • 8.3.4       Quantum dot lighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 364
    • 8.3.5       Printed lighting…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 365
  • 8.4     Market challenges for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic lighting…………………………………………… 366
  • 8.5     Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 367
    • 8.5.1       Current market status………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 367
    • 8.5.2       Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 367
    • 8.5.3       Market revenues, current and projected to 2030………………………………………………………………… 368
  • 8.6     Recent research…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 369
  • 8.7     Company profiles……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 370-374 (15 company profiles)

9    SENSORS…………………………………………………………………………… 375

  • 9.1     Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 375
  • 9.2     Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 381
    • 9.2.1       Current stage of the art………………………………………………………………………………………………… 382
    • 9.2.2       Advanced materials solutions………………………………………………………………………………………… 383
  • 9.3     Flexible biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 384
  • 9.4     Biological fluid-based sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 385
    • 9.4.1       Glucose sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 385
    • 9.4.2       Lactate Sensors…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 386
    • 9.4.3       pH Sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 386
    • 9.4.4       Self-powered biosensors……………………………………………………………………………………………… 387
      • 9.4.4.1    3D Printed Self-Monitoring Strips……………………………………………………………………………….. 387
      • 9.4.4.2    Paper glucose sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………. 388
  • 9.5     Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 389
  • 9.6     Electroactive polymers (EAPs)………………………………………………………………………………………………. 389
  • 9.7     Physiological Sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 390
    • 9.7.1       Pulse rate sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 391
    • 9.7.2       Respiration monitoring sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 392
    • 9.7.3       Hydration/Dehydration sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 392
    • 9.7.4       Alcohol Level Detection……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 392
    • 9.7.5       Motion/Activity Monitoring…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 393
    • 9.7.6       Temperature sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 393
  • 9.8     Pressure and strain sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 394
  • 9.9     Gas sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 394
    • 9.9.1       Printed carbon nanotubes sensors…………………………………………………………………………………. 395
  • 9.10        Flexible image sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 396
  • 9.11        Disposable sensors………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 397
  • 9.12        Large area flexible image sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 397
    • 9.12.1     X-ray detectors………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 398
    • 9.12.2     Large flexible fingerprint sensor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 398
      • 9.12.2.1       Wearable tactile sensors……………………………………………………………………………………… 398
  • 9.13        Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 399
    • 9.13.1     Current market status………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 399
    • 9.13.2     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 400
    • 9.13.3     Market revenues, current and projected to 2030………………………………………………………………… 400
  • 9.14        Recent research…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 400
  • 9.15        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 401-414 (35 company profiles)

10 DISPLAYS…………………………………………………………………………… 415

  • 10.1        Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 415
  • 10.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 415
  • 10.3        Flexible displays…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 417
  • 10.4        Recent developments in foldable OLEDs…………………………………………………………………………….. 418
  • 10.5        Flexible LCDs………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 419
  • 10.6        Flexible OLEDs (FOLED)…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 420
    • 10.6.1     Polyimide…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 421
    • 10.6.2     LLO…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 421
    • 10.6.3     TFE and Barrier Films…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 422
  • 10.7        Flexible AMOLED…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 423
  • 10.8        Flexible electrophoretic displays………………………………………………………………………………………… 425
  • 10.9        Transparent conductive films…………………………………………………………………………………………….. 425
    • 10.9.1     Carbon nanotubes (SWNT)…………………………………………………………………………………………… 429
    • 10.9.2     Double-walled carbon nanotubes…………………………………………………………………………………… 429
    • 10.9.3     Graphene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 429
    • 10.9.4     Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 431
      • 10.9.4.1       Flexible energy storage……………………………………………………………………………………….. 433
    • 10.9.5     Nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 433
    • 10.9.6     Nanofibers………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 434
  • 10.10      Automotive displays………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 434
    • 10.10.1        Large-area automotive displays…………………………………………………………………………………. 434
      • 10.10.1.1     Organic TFT (OTFT) backplane with flexible LCD frontplane……………………………………….. 435
  • 10.11      Electro Wetting Display technology…………………………………………………………………………………….. 436
  • 10.12      Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 437
  • 10.13      Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 440
    • 10.13.1        Current market status……………………………………………………………………………………………… 441
    • 10.13.2        Market outlook………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 442
    • 10.13.3        Market revenues, current and projected to 2030……………………………………………………………. 442
  • 10.14      Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 444-467 (60 company profiles)

11 MEMORY, LOGIC AND COMPONENTS…………………………………. 471

  • 11.1        Market drivers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 471
  • 11.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 472
  • 11.3        Circuit boards and interconnects………………………………………………………………………………………… 472
  • 11.4        Printable, flexible, stretchable and organic transistors…………………………………………………………….. 473
    • 11.4.1     Carbon nanomaterials…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 475
  • 11.5        Organic semiconducting materials……………………………………………………………………………………… 476
  • 11.6        Flexible logic devices………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 476
  • 11.7        Smart windows………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 477
  • 11.8        Global market size………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 480
    • 11.8.1     Current market status………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 481
    • 11.8.2     Market outlook…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 482
    • 11.8.3     Market revenues, current and projected to 2030………………………………………………………………… 482
  • 11.9        Company profiles…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 484-488 (20 company profiles)

12 ADVANCED ELECTRONIC MATERIALS………………………………… 495

  • 12.1        Carbon nanotubes………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 495
    • 12.1.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 495
    • 12.1.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 496
      • 12.1.2.1       Single-walled carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………………………………. 496
    • 12.1.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 498
  • 12.2        Conductive polymers (CP)……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 501
    • 12.2.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 501
      • 12.2.1.1       PDMS……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 501
      • 12.2.1.2       PEDOT: PSS……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 502
    • 12.2.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 502
    • 12.2.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 503
  • 12.3        Graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 504
    • 12.3.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 504
    • 12.3.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 505
    • 12.3.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 506
  • 12.4        Metal mesh…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 508
    • 12.4.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 508
    • 12.4.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 509
    • 12.4.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 510
  • 12.5        Silver ink (Flake, nanoparticles, nanowires, ion)…………………………………………………………………….. 511
    • 12.5.1     Silver flake………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 511
    • 12.5.2     Silver (Ag) nanoparticle ink…………………………………………………………………………………………… 511
      • 12.5.2.1       Conductivity……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 512
    • 12.5.3     Silver nanowires………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 512
    • 12.5.4     Prices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 514
      • 12.5.4.1       Cost for printed area…………………………………………………………………………………………… 514
  • 12.6        Copper ink……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 515
    • 12.6.1     Silver-coated copper…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 515
    • 12.6.2     Copper (Cu) nanoparticle ink………………………………………………………………………………………… 516
    • 12.6.3     Prices………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 516
  • 12.7        Nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 517
    • 12.7.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 517
    • 12.7.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 519
    • 12.7.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 519
      • 12.7.3.1       Nanopaper……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 521
  • 12.8        Nanofibers……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 524
    • 12.8.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 524
    • 12.8.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 524
    • 12.8.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 524
  • 12.9        Quantum dots……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 526
    • 12.9.1     Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 526
    • 12.9.2     Properties utilized in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………… 527
    • 12.9.3     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………………….. 528
  • 12.10      Graphene and carbon quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………………… 530
    • 12.10.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 530
    • 12.10.2        Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics………………………………… 531
  • 12.11      Other types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 532
    • 12.11.1        Gold (Au) nanoparticle ink………………………………………………………………………………………… 532
    • 12.11.2        Siloxane inks…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 532
  • 12.12      OTHER 2-D MATERIALS…………………………………………………………………………………………………. 533
    • 12.12.1        Black phosphorus/Phosphorene………………………………………………………………………………… 533
      • 12.12.1.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 533
      • 12.12.1.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 534
    • 12.12.2        Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4)………………………………………………………………………………. 535
      • 12.12.2.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 535
      • 12.12.2.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 536
    • 12.12.3        Germanene…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 536
      • 12.12.3.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 537
      • 12.12.3.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 537
    • 12.12.4        Graphdiyne…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 537
      • 12.12.4.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 538
      • 12.12.4.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 538
    • 12.12.5        Graphane…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 538
      • 12.12.5.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 539
      • 12.12.5.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 539
    • 12.12.6        Hexagonal boron nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………… 540
      • 12.12.6.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 540
      • 12.12.6.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 541
    • 12.12.7        Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2)……………………………………………………………………………………. 541
      • 12.12.7.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 542
      • 12.12.7.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 542
    • 12.12.8        Rhenium disulfide (ReS2) and diselenide (ReSe2)………………………………………………………… 544
      • 12.12.8.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 544
      • 12.12.8.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 544
    • 12.12.9        Silicene……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 545
      • 12.12.9.1     Properties………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 545
      • 12.12.9.2     Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics…………………………….. 546
    • 12.12.10      Stanene/tinene………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 547
      • 12.12.10.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 547
      • 12.12.10.2        Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics………………………… 548
    • 12.12.11      Tungsten diselenide……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 548
      • 12.12.11.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 549
      • 12.12.11.2        Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics………………………… 549
    • 12.12.12      Antimonene………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 549
      • 12.12.12.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 549
      • 12.12.12.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 549
    • 12.12.13      Indium selenide……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 550
      • 12.12.13.1        Properties…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 550
      • 12.12.13.2        Applications………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 550
  • 13 REFERENCES…………………………………………………………………….. 551

 

Tables

  • Table 1. Market overview……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 38
  • Table 2: Evolution of wearable devices, 2011-2017………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Table 3. Approaches for stretchability……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • Table 4: Advanced materials for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 47
  • Table 5: Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE)……………………………………………………………………………………… 49
  • Table 6: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic sensors for wearables and IoT………………….. 50
  • Table 7: Wearable electronics devices and stage of development……………………………………………………………….. 53
  • Table 8: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2030, by application, billions $……………………………………… 57
  • Table 9: Markets for wearable devices and applications…………………………………………………………………………….. 58
  • Table 10. Global market for printed, flexible, stretchable and organics electronics to 2030, by market, revenues (USD)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 62
  • Table 11: Market drivers for conductive inks…………………………………………………………………………………………… 66
  • Table 12: Typical conductive ink formulation…………………………………………………………………………………………… 68
  • Table 13:  Characteristics of analog printing processes for conductive inks……………………………………………………. 70
  • Table 14: Characteristics of digital printing processes for conductive inks……………………………………………………… 71
  • Table 15: Printable electronics products………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74
  • Table 16: Comparative properties of conductive inks………………………………………………………………………………… 75
  • Table 17: Applications in conductive inks by type and benefits thereof………………………………………………………….. 76
  • Table 18: Opportunities for advanced materials in printed electronics…………………………………………………………… 79
  • Table 19: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof……………….. 81
  • Table 20: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology………………………………………………. 85
  • Table 21: Main markets for conductive inks, applications and revenues………………………………………………………… 86
  • Table 22: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2030 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 89
  • Table 23: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic medical and healthcare sensors and wearables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 129
  • Table 24. Applications of printable, flexible, stretchable & organic electronics in medical and healthcare…………….. 131
  • Table 25: Wearable medical device products and stage of development……………………………………………………… 134
  • Table 26: Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 140
  • Table 27. Commercially available point of care testing systems…………………………………………………………………. 141
  • Table 28: Applications in patch-type skin sensors, by materials type and benefits thereof………………………………… 149
  • Table 29. Comercially available patch sensors………………………………………………………………………………………. 150
  • Table 30. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic medical and healthcare products 2030, millions USD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
  • Table 31: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronic textiles and apparel……………….. 177
  • Table 32: Types of smart textiles………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • Table 33: Examples of smart textile products………………………………………………………………………………………… 179
  • Table 34: Currently available technologies for smart textiles……………………………………………………………………… 180
  • Table 35: Electronic textiles and apparel and stage of development……………………………………………………………. 180
  • Table 36: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof………………………………………… 182
  • Table 37: Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel………………………………………………………. 186
  • Table 38. Market revenues for electronic textiles and apparel to 2030, millions USD………………………………………. 193
  • Table 39: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market……………………………………………………….. 195
  • Table 40: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic batteries…………………………………………… 213
  • Table 41: Printable, flexible, stretchables and organic devices and stage of development……………………………….. 214
  • Table 42. Types of printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • Table 43. Materials and substrates used in printed batteries……………………………………………………………………… 217
  • Table 44. Analysis of printing techniques for printed batteries……………………………………………………………………. 217
  • Table 45. Recent activity in 3D printed batteries…………………………………………………………………………………….. 220
  • Table 46. Companies developing graphene batteries………………………………………………………………………………. 221
  • Table 47: Applications in flexible and stretchable batteries, by materials type and benefits thereof…………………….. 223
  • Table 48. Traditonal LIB versus flexible LIB…………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
  • Table 49. Material, Electrode Parameters and Cell Performance of Reported Fiber Based Lithium Ion Batteries…… 226
  • Table 50. Types of paper batteries……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 233
  • Table 51. Types of stretchable conductors……………………………………………………………………………………………. 234
  • Table 52. Companies producing carbon nanotubes and graphene batteries…………………………………………………. 240
  • Table 53: Applications in flexible and stretchable supercapacitors, by nanomaterials type and benefits thereof…….. 245
  • Table 54: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic photovoltaics……………………………………… 320
  • Table 55. Applications of printed, flexible & stretchable and organic photovoltaics…………………………………………. 321
  • Table 56. Advantages and disadvantages of types of solar panels……………………………………………………………… 322
  • Table 57: Wearable energy harvesting devices and stage of development…………………………………………………… 330
  • Table 58: Applications in energy harvesting textiles, by materials type and benefits thereof……………………………… 331
  • Table 59. Market challenges for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic photovoltaics………………………………….. 334
  • Table 60. Market revenues for printed, flexible and organic photovoltaics to 2030, millions USD……………………….. 336
  • Table 61: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic lighting……………………………………………… 360
  • Table 62. LED versus OLED: Pros & cons……………………………………………………………………………………………. 362
  • Table 63. OLED Historical and Targeted Luminaire Efficiency…………………………………………………………………… 364
  • Table 64. Market challenges for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic lighting………………………………………….. 366
  • Table 65. Market revenues for OLED lighting to 2030, millions USD…………………………………………………………… 368
  • Table 66: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and sensors………………………………………………………. 375
  • Table 67. Types of printed sensors……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 381
  • Table 68. Materials, substrates, mechanisms, and fabrication procedures for printed and flexible sensors………….. 381
  • Table 69. Materials substrates, mechanisms, and fabrication procedures for fluidic-based sensors……………………. 385
  • Table 70: Graphene properties relevant to application in sensors………………………………………………………………. 389
  • Table 71. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic sensors to 2030, millions USD……………. 400
  • Table 72: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic displays……………………………………………. 415
  • Table 73. Applications of printable, flexible, stretchable and organic displays……………………………………………….. 415
  • Table 74. Foldable smartphone products in 2019……………………………………………………………………………………. 419
  • Table 75: Transparent conductive switches-PEDOT……………………………………………………………………………….. 426
  • Table 76: Comparison of ITO replacements………………………………………………………………………………………….. 426
  • Table 77: Applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic sensors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 427
  • Table 78. Automotive companies developing displays……………………………………………………………………………… 435
  • Table 79: Technologies for smart windows in buildings……………………………………………………………………………. 439
  • Table 80. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic displays to 2030, millions USD…………… 442
  • Table 81: Market drivers for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic memory, logic and electronic components… 472
  • Table 82. Applications of printable, flexible, stretchable and organic memory, logic and electronic components……. 472
  • Table 83: Applications in flexible and stretchable circuit boards, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof… 473
  • Table 84: Price comparison of thin-film transistor (TFT) electronics technology……………………………………………… 474
  • Table 85. Types of flexible and printed transistor circuits………………………………………………………………………….. 475
  • Table 86: Technologies for smart windows in buildings……………………………………………………………………………. 479
  • Table 87. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic memory, logic and components………….. 482
  • Table 88: Properties of CNTs and comparable materials………………………………………………………………………….. 495
  • Table 89: Companies developing carbon nanotubes for applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 498
  • Table 90: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………………………….. 502
  • Table 91: Properties of graphene……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 504
  • Table 92: Companies developing graphene for applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics. 507
  • Table 93: Advantages and disadvantages of fabrication techniques to produce metal mesh structures………………. 509
  • Table 94: Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications……………………………………………….. 509
  • Table 95: Companies developing metal mesh for applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 510
  • Table 96: Nanocellulose properties……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 517
  • Table 97: Properties and applications of nanocellulose……………………………………………………………………………. 518
  • Table 98: Properties of flexible electronics‐cellulose nanofiber film (nanopaper)……………………………………………. 519
  • Table 99: Properties of flexible electronics cellulose nanofiber films……………………………………………………………. 521
  • Table 100: Companies developing nanocellulose for applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 522
  • Table 101: Companies developing quantum dots for applications in printable, flexible, stretchable and organic electronics……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 528
  • Table 102: Schematic of (a) CQDs and (c) GQDs. HRTEM images of (b) C-dots and (d) GQDs showing combination of zigzag and armchair edges (positions marked as 1–4……………………………………………………………………….. 530
  • Table 103: Properties of graphene quantum dots…………………………………………………………………………………… 530
  • Table 104: Electronic and mechanical properties of monolayer phosphorene, graphene and MoS2……………………. 534

 

Figures

  • Figure 1: Evolution of electronics………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 40
  • Figure 2: Wove Band…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 43
  • Figure 3: Wearable graphene medical sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………. 44
  • Figure 4: Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics……………………………………………………………….. 46
  • Figure 5: Covestro wearables……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Figure 6: Royole flexible display…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 55
  • Figure 7: Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2030, by application, billions $…………………………………….. 57
  • Figure 8: Mimo Baby Monitor………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 60
  • Figure 9: Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors……………………………………………………. 61
  • Figure 10: Global market for printed, flexible, stretchable and organics electronics to 2030, by market, revenues (USD)……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 63
  • Figure 11.  Summary of representative contact- and non-contact-based printing technologies……………………………. 69
  • Figure 12: BGT Materials graphene ink product………………………………………………………………………………………. 78
  • Figure 13: Flexible RFID tag……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 79
  • Figure 14: Enfucell Printed Battery……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 82
  • Figure 15: Graphene printed antenna……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 82
  • Figure 16: Printed antennas for aircraft………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Figure 17: Stretchable material for formed an in-molded electronics…………………………………………………………….. 83
  • Figure 18: Wearable patch with a skin-compatible, pressure-sensitive adhesive……………………………………………… 84
  • Figure 19: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs……………………………………………………………………………………. 85
  • Figure 20: Conductive inks in the flexible and stretchable electronics market 2017-2030 revenue forecast (million $), by ink types…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 88
  • Figure 21: Connected human body……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 133
  • Figure 22: Flexible, lightweight temperature sensor………………………………………………………………………………… 134
  • Figure 23: Prototype ECG sensor patch……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 137
  • Figure 24. Personalized smart healthcare technology……………………………………………………………………………… 138
  • Figure 25: Graphene-based E-skin patch……………………………………………………………………………………………… 139
  • Figure 26. Point of care systems for personalized healthcare……………………………………………………………………. 143
  • Figure 27: Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration…………………………………………………. 143
  • Figure 28: Smart mouth guard……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 144
  • Figure 29: Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs………….. 148
  • Figure 30: Graphene medical patch…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 148
  • Figure 31.  BiostampMC10………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 149
  • Figure 32: TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer…………………………………………………………………………….. 151
  • Figure 33: Mimo baby monitor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 151
  • Figure 34: Nanowire skin hydration patch……………………………………………………………………………………………… 152
  • Figure 35: Wearable sweat sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 153
  • Figure 36: GraphWear wearable sweat sensor………………………………………………………………………………………. 154
  • Figure 37: My UV Patch……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 155
  • Figure 38: Overview layers of L’Oreal skin patch……………………………………………………………………………………. 156
  • Figure 39. Sensoria smart socks………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 157
  • Figure 40. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic medical and healthcare produts 2030, millions USD………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 159
  • Figure 41: Conductive yarns………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 184
  • Figure 42: <hitoe> nanofiber conductive shirt original design(top) and current design (bottom)…………………………. 185
  • Figure 43: Garment-based printable electrodes……………………………………………………………………………………… 186
  • Figure 44: Work out shirt incorporating ECG sensors, flexible lights and heating elements………………………………. 187
  • Figure 45: BeBop Sensors Smart Helmet Sensor System………………………………………………………………………… 188
  • Figure 46: Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper…………………………………………………………………………………… 189
  • Figure 47: Torso and Extremities Protection (TEP) system……………………………………………………………………….. 190
  • Figure 48. Market revenues for electronic textiles and apparel to 2030,, millions USD…………………………………….. 194
  • Figure 49: Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel market 2013-2027 revenue forecast (million $)…… 195
  • Figure 50 Global smart clothing, interactive fabrics and apparel sales by market segment, 2016………………………. 196
  • Figure 51: LG Chem Heaxagonal battery……………………………………………………………………………………………… 215
  • Figure 52: Enfucell Printed Battery……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 216
  • Figure 53. Flexible label and printed paper battery………………………………………………………………………………….. 216
  • Figure 54. Design of printed batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 217
  • Figure 55. 3D printed microbattery………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 218
  • Figure 56. Prototype of Flexible, stretchable and rechargeable printed battery………………………………………………. 220
  • Figure 57. Schematic of mechanical stresses generated in a battery during flexing………………………………………… 222
  • Figure 58: Printed 1.5V battery…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 223
  • Figure 59. Prologium thin, flexible battery……………………………………………………………………………………………… 225
  • Figure 60. Flexible Lithium-ion Battery from Panasonic……………………………………………………………………………. 226
  • Figure 61. Li-ion battery composed of carbon nanotube fiber yarn……………………………………………………………… 227
  • Figure 62. Schematic representation of a flexible zinc air battery configuration……………………………………………… 229
  • Figure 63: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 231
  • Figure 64. Bendable micro-battery………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 233
  • Figure 65. Cellulose nanofiber battery………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 233
  • Figure 66. Schematic illustration of the structure of stretchable LIBs…………………………………………………………… 235
  • Figure 67. Concept of origami lithium-ion batteries…………………………………………………………………………………. 236
  • Figure 68. Foldable kirigami lithium-ion battery………………………………………………………………………………………. 237
  • Figure 69: Energy densities and specific energy of rechargeable batteries…………………………………………………… 244
  • Figure 70: Stretchable graphene supercapacitor…………………………………………………………………………………….. 244
  • Figure 71. 24M battery……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 247
  • Figure 72. Amorphous solar panel………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 323
  • Figure 73. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solar panel……………………………………………………………………………………. 324
  • Figure 74. Copper gallium indium diselenide (CIGS) solar panel………………………………………………………………… 325
  • Figure 75. Schematic of DSSC…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 325
  • Figure 76. Organic photovoltaic cell…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 327
  • Figure 77: StretchSense Energy Harvesting Kit……………………………………………………………………………………… 329
  • Figure 78. Market revenues for printed, flexible and organic photovoltaics to 2030, millions USD………………………. 336
  • Figure 79. OLED Panel…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 362
  • Figure 80: LG OLED flexible lighting panel……………………………………………………………………………………………. 363
  • Figure 81: Flexible OLED incorporated into automotive headlight………………………………………………………………. 363
  • Figure 82: Flexible & stretchable LEDs based on quantum dots…………………………………………………………………. 365
  • Figure 83. Market revenues for OLED lighting to 2030, millions USD………………………………………………………….. 369
  • Figure 84: Softceptor sensor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 382
  • Figure 85: BeBop Media Arm Controller……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 383
  • Figure 86: LG Innotek flexible textile pressure sensor……………………………………………………………………………… 383
  • Figure 87: C2Sense flexible sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 384
  • Figure 88. Wearable iontophoretic biosensor device on a printed tattoo platform…………………………………………… 385
  • Figure 89: Wearable gas sensor…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 395
  • Figure 90. Array sensors of flexible electronics based on polyimide films for large area sensing……………………….. 397
  • Figure 91. NEXT Biometrics large flexible fingerprint sensor……………………………………………………………………… 398
  • Figure 92: BeBop Sensors Marcel Modular Data Gloves………………………………………………………………………….. 399
  • Figure 93. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic sensors to 2030, millions USD…………… 400
  • Figure 94: BITalino systems………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 404
  • Figure 95: LG Display LG Display 77-inch flexible transparent OLED display………………………………………………… 416
  • Figure 96:  Carbon nanotubes flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries incorporated into flexible, rechargeable yarn batteries………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
  • Figure 97. Huawei Mate X…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 418
  • Figure 98. Samsung Galaxy Fold……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 418
  • Figure 99: Flexible LCD……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 419
  • Figure 100: “Full ActiveTM Flex”…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 420
  • Figure 101: FOLED schematic…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 421
  • Figure 102: Foldable display……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 424
  • Figure 103: Stretchable AMOLED……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 424
  • Figure 104: LGD 12.3” FHD Automotive OLED………………………………………………………………………………………. 425
  • Figure 105: LECTUM® display…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 425
  • Figure 106: Panasonic CNT stretchable Resin Film………………………………………………………………………………… 427
  • Figure 107: Bending durability of Ag nanowires……………………………………………………………………………………… 431
  • Figure 108: NFC computer chip………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 432
  • Figure 109: NFC translucent diffuser schematic……………………………………………………………………………………… 433
  • Figure 110. Dashboard display…………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 435
  • Figure 111: SPD smart windows schematic…………………………………………………………………………………………… 437
  • Figure 112: Vertical insulated glass unit for a Suntuitive® thermochromic window…………………………………………. 438
  • Figure 113: Nanocrystal smart glass that can switch between fully transparent, heat-blocking, and light-and-heat-blocking modes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 439
  • Figure 114. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic displays to 2030, millions USD………… 442
  • Figure 115: Thin film transistor incorporating CNTs…………………………………………………………………………………. 474
  • Figure 116: SPD smart windows schematic…………………………………………………………………………………………… 477
  • Figure 117: Vertical insulated glass unit for a Suntuitive® thermochromic window…………………………………………. 478
  • Figure 118: Nanocrystal smart glass that can switch between fully transparent, heat-blocking, and light-and-heat-blocking modes………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 479
  • Figure 119. Market revenues for printable, flexible, stretchable and organic organic memory, logic and components. 483
  • Figure 120: Schematic of single-walled carbon nanotube…………………………………………………………………………. 497
  • Figure 121: Stretchable SWNT memory and logic devices for wearable electronics……………………………………….. 497
  • Figure 122: Stretchable carbon aerogel incorporating carbon nanotubes……………………………………………………… 500
  • Figure 123: Graphene layer structure schematic…………………………………………………………………………………….. 505
  • Figure 124: Flexible graphene touch screen………………………………………………………………………………………….. 506
  • Figure 125: Foldable graphene E-paper……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 506
  • Figure 126: Large-area metal mesh touch panel…………………………………………………………………………………….. 509
  • Figure 127: Silver nanocomposite ink after sintering and resin bonding of discrete electronic components………….. 512
  • Figure 128: Flexible silver nanowire wearable mesh……………………………………………………………………………….. 514
  • Figure 129: Copper based inks on flexible substrate……………………………………………………………………………….. 515
  • Figure 130:  Cellulose nanofiber films………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 519
  • Figure 131: Nanocellulose photoluminescent paper………………………………………………………………………………… 520
  • Figure 132: LEDs shining on circuitry imprinted on a 5x5cm sheet of CNF…………………………………………………… 520
  • Figure 133: Foldable nanopaper…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 521
  • Figure 134: Foldable nanopaper antenna……………………………………………………………………………………………… 522
  • Figure 135: Paper memory (ReRAM)…………………………………………………………………………………………………… 522
  • Figure 136: Quantum dot………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 526
  • Figure 137: The light-blue curve represents a typical spectrum from a conventional white-LED LCD TV. With quantum dots, the spectrum is tunable to any colours of red, green, and blue, and each Color is limited to a narrow band. 527
  • Figure 138: Black phosphorus structure……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 533
  • Figure 139: Black Phosphorus crystal………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 534
  • Figure 140: Bottom gated flexible few-layer phosphorene transistors with the hydrophobic dielectric encapsulation. 535
  • Figure 141: Graphitic carbon nitride…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 536
  • Figure 142: Schematic of germanene………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 537
  • Figure 143: Graphdiyne structure……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 538
  • Figure 144: Schematic of Graphane crystal…………………………………………………………………………………………… 539
  • Figure 145: Structure of hexagonal boron nitride……………………………………………………………………………………. 540
  • Figure 146: Structure of 2D molybdenum disulfide………………………………………………………………………………….. 541
  • Figure 147: SEM image of MoS2………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 542
  • Figure 148: Atomic force microscopy image of a representative MoS2 thin-film transistor………………………………… 543
  • Figure 149: Schematic of the molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin-film sensor with the deposited molecules that create additional charge………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 544
  • Figure 150: Schematic of a monolayer of rhenium disulphide……………………………………………………………………. 544
  • Figure 151: Silicene structure…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 545
  • Figure 152: Monolayer silicene on a silver (111) substrate……………………………………………………………………….. 546
  • Figure 153: Silicene transistor……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 547
  • Figure 154: Crystal structure for stanene………………………………………………………………………………………………. 547
  • Figure 155: Atomic structure model for the 2D stanene on Bi2Te3(111)………………………………………………………. 548
  • Figure 156: Schematic of tungsten diselenide………………………………………………………………………………………… 549
  • Figure 157: Schematic of Indium Selenide (InSe)…………………………………………………………………………………… 550
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